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Human microbiota alterations — emerging predictors of renal diseases and kidney-specific aging
Rapid advances in sequencing and analytical technologies have increased our understanding of the interactions between the microbiome and the host. The microbiome plays a variety of physiological roles in the health of the host and pathological roles in disease; for example, the microbiome changes significantly when kidney health is compromised and during kidney-specific aging. At present, good diagnostic markers are absent for early renal injury. However, the composition of the microbiome could provide useful indications for disease diagnosis and treatment beyond more conventional diagnostic markers. Such indications are well represented in chronic kidney disease, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, and diabetic nephropathy. With sensitivity, specificity, and stability, the microbiota can provide more possibilities for the diagnosis of the early recognition of asymptomatic renal injury and aging. Moreover, probiotics and microbial metabolites have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of kidney diseases. Therapeutic measures targeting the microbiota can effectively improve the immune response and inflammatory state of the body. This paper reviews the current evidence on how the microbiome is not only a potentially effective tool for clinical diagnosis but also an important focus for the study of kidney disease and aging.
Keywords: Human microbiota, kidney-specific aging, renal disease, high-throughput sequencing, predictor